- Normal Adult Range: 32 - 36 %
Optimal Adult Reading: 34
Higher ranges are found in newborns and infants
- Normal Adult Female Range: 3.9 - 5.2 mill/mcl
Optimal Adult Female Reading: 4.55
Normal Adult Male Range: 4.2 - 5.6 mill/mcl
Optimal Adult Male Reading: 4.9
Lower ranges are found in Children, newborns and infants
- Normal Adult Range: 3.8 - 10.8 thous/mcl
Optimal Adult Reading: 7.3
Higher ranges are found in children, newborns and infants.
- Normal Adult Range: 130 - 400 thous/mcl
Optimal Adult Reading: 265
Higher ranges are found in children, newborns and infants
NEUTROPHILS and NEUTROPHIL COUNT
- this is the main defender of the body against infection
and antigens. High levels may indicate an active infection.
- Normal Adult Range: 48 - 73 %
Optimal Adult Reading: 60.5
Normal Children's Range: 30 - 60 %
Optimal Children's Reading: 45
LYMPHOCYTES and LYMPHOCYTE COUNT - Elevated
levels may indicate an active viral infections such as measles,
rubella, chickenpox, or infectious mononucleosis.
- Normal Adult Range: 18 - 48 %
Optimal Adult Reading: 33
Normal Children's Range: 25 - 50 %
Optimal Children's Reading: 37.5
MONOCYTES and MONOCYTE COUNT - Elevated
levels are seen in tissue breakdown or chronic infections, carcinomas,
leukemia (monocytic) or lymphomas.
- Normal Adult Range: 0 - 9 %
Optimal Adult Reading: 4.5
EOSINOPHILS and EOSINOPHIL COUNT
- Elevated levels may indicate an allergic reactions or
- Normal Adult Range: 0 - 5 %
Optimal Adult Reading: 2.5
BASOPHILS and BASOPHIL COUNT - Basophilic
activity is not fully understood but it is known to carry histamine,
heparin and serotonin. High levels are found in allergic reactions.
- Normal Adult Range: 0 - 2 %
Optimal Adult Reading: 1
SODIUM - Sodium is the most abundant
cation in the blood and its chief base. It functions in the body
to maintain osmotic pressure, acid-base balance and to transmit
nerve impulses. Very Low value: seizure and Neurologic Sx.
POTASSIUM - Potassium is the major
intracellular cation. Very low value:
CHLORIDE - Elevated
levels are related to acidosis as well as too much water crossing
the cell membrane. Decreased levels with decreased serum albumin
may indicate water deficiency crossing the cell membrane (edema).
CO2 (Carbon Dioxide) - The
CO2 level is related to the respiratory exchange of carbon dioxide
in the lungs and is part of the bodies buffering system. Generally
when used with the other electrolytes, it is a good indicator
of acidosis and alkalinity.
CALCIUM - involved in
bone metabolism, protein absorption, fat transfer muscular contraction,
transmission of nerve impulses, blood clotting and cardiac function.
Regulated by parathyroid.
PHOSPHORUS - Generally
inverse with Calcium.
ANION GAP (Sodium + Potassium - CO2 + Chloride)
- An increased measurement is associated with metabolic
acidosis due to the overproduction of acids (a state of alkalinity
is in effect). Decreased levels may indicate metabolic alkalosis
due to the overproduction of alkaloids (a state of acidosis is
- Normal Adult Range: 4 - 14 (calculated)
Optimal Adult Reading: 9
- Normal Adult Range: 2.3 - 3.3 (calculated)
Optimal Adult Reading: 2.8
Normal Children's range: 1.3 - 3.3 (calculated)
Optimal Children's Reading: 2.3
- Normal Adult Range: 26 - 38 (calculated)
Optimal Adult Reading: 32
AST (Serum Glutamic-Oxalocetic Transaminase - SGOT
) - found primarily in the liver, heart, kidney, pancreas,
and muscles. Seen in tissue damage, especially heart and live
- Normal Adult Range: 0 - 42 U/L
Optimal Adult Reading: 21
ALT (Serum Glutamic-Pyruvic Transaminase - SGPT)
- Decreased SGPT in combination with increased cholesterol
levels is seen in cases of a congested liver. We also see increased
levels in mononucleosis, alcoholism, liver damage, kidney infection,
chemical pollutants or myocardial infarction
- Normal Adult Range: 0 - 48 U/L
Optimal Adult Reading: 24
ALKALINE PHOSPHATASE - Used
extensively as a tumor marker it is also present in bone injury,
pregnancy, or skeletal growth (elevated readings. Low levels
are sometimes found in hypoadrenia, protein deficiency, malnutrition
and a number of vitamin deficiencies
- Normal Adult Range: 20 - 125 U/L
Optimal Adult Reading: 72.5
Normal Children's Range: 40 - 400 U/L
Optimal Children's Reading: 220
GGT (Gamma-Glutamyl Transpeptidase) - Elevated
levels may be found in liver disease, alcoholism, bile-duct obstruction,
cholangitis, drug abuse, and in some cases excessive magnesium
ingestion. Decreased levels can be found in hypothyroidism, hypothalamic
malfunction and low levels of magnesium.
- Normal Adult Female Range: 0 - 45 U/L
Optimal Female Reading: 22.5
Normal Adult Male Range: 0 - 65 U/L
Optimal Male Reading: 32.5
LDH (Lactic Acid Dehydrogenase) - Increases
are usually found in cellular death and/or leakage from the cell
or in some cases it can be useful in confirming myocardial or
pulmonary infarction (only in relation to other tests). Decreased
levels of the enzyme may be seen in cases of malnutrition, hypoglycemia,
adrenal exhaustion or low tissue or organ activity.
- Normal Adult Range: 0 - 250 U/L
Optimal Adult Reading: 125
BILIRUBIN, TOTAL - Elevated in liver
disease, mononucleosis, hemolytic anemia, low levels of exposure
to the sun, and toxic effects to some drugs, decreased levels
are seen in people with an inefficient liver, excessive fat digestion,
and possibly a diet low in nitrogen bearing foods
- Normal Adult Range 0 - 1.3 mg/dl
Optimal Adult Reading: .65
B.U.N. (Blood Urea Nitrogen) - Increases
can be caused by excessive protein intake, kidney damage, certain
drugs, low fluid intake, intestinal bleeding, exercise or heart
failure. Decreased levels may be due to a poor diet, malabsorption,
liver damage or low nitrogen intake.
- Normal Adult Range: 7 - 25 mg/dl
Optimal Adult Reading: 16
CREATININE - Low levels are sometimes
seen in kidney damage, protein starvation, liver disease or pregnancy.
Elevated levels are sometimes seen in kidney disease due to the
kidneys job of excreting creatinine, muscle degeneration, and
some drugs involved in impairment of kidney function.
- Normal Adult Range: .7 - 1.4 mg/dl
Optimal Adult Reading: 1.05
URIC ACID - High levels are noted
in gout, infections, kidney disease, alcoholism, high protein
diets, and with toxemia in pregnancy. Low levels may be indicative
of kidney disease, malabsorption, poor diet, liver damage or an
overly acid kidney.
- Normal Adult Female Range: 2.5 - 7.5 mg/dl
Optimal Adult Female Reading: 5.0
Normal Adult Male Range: 3.5 - 7.5 mg/dl
Optimal Adult Male Reading:5.5
BUN/CREATININE - This calculation
is a good measurement of kidney and liver function.
- Normal Adult Range: 6 -25 (calculated)
Optimal Adult Reading: 15.5
PROTEIN, TOTAL - Decreased levels
may be due to poor nutrition, liver disease, malabsorption, diarrhea,
or severe burns. Increased levels are seen in lupus, liver disease,
chronic infections, alcoholism, leukemia, tuberculosis amongst
- Normal Adult Range: 6.0 -8.5 g/dl
Optimal Adult Reading: 7.25
ALBUMIN - major constituent of serum
protein (usually over 50%). High levels are seen in liver disease(rarely)
, shock, dehydration, or multiple myeloma. Lower levels are seen
in poor diets, diarrhea, fever, infection, liver disease, inadequate
iron intake, third-degree burns and edemas or hypocalcemia
- Normal Adult Range: 3.2 - 5.0 g/dl
Optimal Adult Reading: 4.1
GLOBULIN - Globulins have many diverse
functions such as, the carrier of some hormones, lipids, metals,
and antibodies(IgA, IgG, IgM, and IgE). Elevated levels are seen
with chronic infections, liver disease, rheumatoid arthritis,
myelomas, and lupus are present, . Lower levels in immune compromised
patients, poor dietary habits, malabsorption and liver or kidney
- Normal Adult Range: 2.2 - 4.2 g/dl (calculated)
Optimal Adult Reading: 3.2
A/G RATIO (Albumin/Globulin Ratio)
- Normal Adult Range: 0.8 - 2.0 (calculated)
Optimal Adult Reading: 1.9
CHOLESTEROL - High density
lipoproteins (HDL) is desired as opposed to the low density lipoproteins
(LDL), two types of cholesterol. Elevated cholesterol has been
seen in artherosclerosis, diabetes, hypothyroidism and pregnancy.
Low levels are seen in depression, malnutrition, liver insufficiency,
malignancies, anemia and infection.
- Normal Adult Range: 120 - 240 mg/dl
Optimal Adult Reading: 180
LDL (Low Density Lipoprotein) - studies
correlate the association between high levels of LDL and arterial
- Normal Adult Range: 62 - 130 mg/dl
Optimal Adult Reading: 81 mg/dl
HDL (High Density Lipoprotein) - A high
level of HDL is an indication of a healthy metabolic system if
there is no sign of liver disease or intoxication.
- Normal Adult Range: 35 - 135 mg/dl
Optimal Adult Reading: +85 mg/dl
TRIGLYCERIDES - Increased levels
may be present in artherosclerosis, hypothyroidism, liver disease,
pancreatitis, myocardial infarction, metabolic disorders, toxemia,
and nephrotic syndrome. Decreased levels may be present in chronic
obstructive pulmonary disease, brain infarction, hyperthyroidism,
malnutrition, and malabsorption.
- Normal Adult Range: 0 - 200 mg/dl
Optimal Adult Reading: 100
- Normal Adult Range: 1 - 6
Optimal Adult Reading: 3.5
THYROXINE (T4) - Increased levels
are found in hyperthyroidism, acute thyroiditis, and hepatitis.
Low levels can be found in Cretinism, hypothyroidism, cirrhosis,
malnutrition, and chronic thyroiditis.
- Normal Adult Range: 4 - 12 ug/dl
Optimal Adult Reading: 8 ug/dl
T3-UPTAKE - Increased levels are
found in hyperthyroidism, severe liver disease, metastatic malignancy,
and pulmonary insufficiency. Decreased levels are found in hypothyroidism,
normal pregnancy, and hyperestrogenis status.
- Normal Adult Range: 27 - 47%
Optimal Adult Reading: 37 %
- Normal Adult Range: 4 - 12
Optimal Adult Reading: 8
HORMONE (TSH) - produced by the anterior pituitary gland,
causes the release and distribution of stored thyroid hormones.
When T4 and T3 are too high, TSH secretion decreases, when T4
and T3 are low, TSH secretion increases.
- Normal Adult Range: .5 - 6 miliIU/L
Creatine phosphokinase (CK) - Levels rise 4 to 8
hours after an acute MI, peaking at 16 to 30 hours and returning
to baseline within 4 days
CK-MB CK isoenzyme - It begins to increase 6 to
10 hours after an acute MI, peaks in 24 hours, and remains elevated
for up to 72 hours.
- < 12 IU/L if total CK is <400 IU/L
- <3.5% of total CK if total CK is >400 IU/L
(LDH) Lactate dehydrogenase - Total LDH will begin to
rise 2 to 5 days after an MI; the elevation can last 10 days.
LDH-1 and LDH-2 LDH isoenzymes - Compare LDH 1 and
LDH 2 levels. Normally, the LDH-1 value will be less than the
LDH-2. In the acute MI, however, the LDH 2 remains constant, while
LDH 1 rises. When the LDH 1 is higher than LDH 2, the LDH is said
to be , which is highly suggestive
of an MI. A flipped pattern appears 12-24 hours post MI and persists
for 48 hours.
SGOT - will begin to rise in 8-12 hours and peak
in 18-30 hours
Myoglobin - early and sensitive diagnosis of myocardial
infarction in the emergency department This small heme protein
becomes abnormal within 1 to 2 hours of necrosis, peaks in 4-8
hours, and drops to normal in about 12 hours.
Troponin Complex - Peaks in 10-24 hours, begins to fall off
after 1-2 weeks.
Table of Cardiac markers
Markers of Myocardial Injury
days cTnT: 7-14 days