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분홍토끼
2004.06.12 19:58
Total Abdominal Hysterectomy -
This is the most common type of hysterectomy. During a total abdominal hysterectomy, the doctor removes the uterus, including the cervix. The scar may be horizontal or vertical, depending on the reason the procedure is performed, and the size of the area being treated. Cancer of the ovary and uterus, endometriosis, and large uterine fibroids are treated with total abdominal hysterectomy. Total abdominal hysterectomy may also be done in some unusual cases of very severe pelvic pain, after a very thorough evaluation to identify the cause of the pain, and only after several attempts at non-surgical treatments. Clearly a woman cannot bear children herself after this procedure, so it is not performed on women of childbearing age unless there is a serious condition, such as cancer. Total abdominal hysterectomy allows the whole abdomen and pelvis to be examined, which is an advantage in women with cancer or investigating growths of unclear cause.

Vaginal Hysterectomy -
During this procedure, the uterus is removed through the vagina. A vaginal hysterectomy is appropriate only for conditions such as uterine prolapse, endometrial hyperplasia, or cervical dysplasia. These are conditions in which the uterus is not too large, and in which the whole abdomen does require examination using a more extensive surgical procedure. The woman will need to have her legs raised up in a stirrup device throughout the procedure. Women who have not had children may not have a large enough vaginal canal for this type of procedure. If a woman has too large a uterus, cannot have her legs raised in the stirrup device for prolonged periods, or has other reasons why the whole upper abdomen must be further examined, the doctor will usually recommend an abdominal hysterectomy (see above). In general, laparoscopic vaginal hysterectomy is more expensive and has higher complication rates than abdominal hysterectomy.

Laparoscopy-Assisted Vaginal Hysterectomy -
This is similar to the vaginal hysterectomy procedure described above, but it adds the use of a laparoscope. A laparoscope is a very thin viewing tube with a magnifying glass-like device at the end of it. Certain women would be best served by having laparoscopy used during vaginal hysterectomy because it allows the upper abdomen to be carefully inspected during surgery. Examples of uses of the laparoscope would be for early endometrial cancer, to verify lack of spread, or if oophorectomy (removal of the ovaries) is planned. Compared to simple vaginal hysterectomy or abdominal hysterectomy, it is a more expensive procedure, is more prone to complications, requires longer to perform, and is associated with longer hospital stays. Just as with simple vaginal hysterectomy without a laparoscope, the uterus must not be excessively large. The physician will also review the medical situation to be sure there are no special risks prohibiting use of the procedure, such as prior surgery that could have increased the risk for abnormal scarring (adhesions). If a woman has such a history of prior surgery, or if she has a large pelvic mass, a regular abdominal hysterectomy is probably best.

Supracervical Hysterectomy -
A supracervical hysterectomy is used to remove the uterus while sparing the cervix, leaving it as a "stump." The cervix is the area that forms the very bottom of the uterus, and sits at the very end (top) of the vaginal canal (see illustration above). The procedure probably does not totally rule out the possibility of developing endometrial cancer in this remnant "stump." Women who have had abnormal pap smears or cancer of the cervix clearly are not appropriate candidates for this procedure. Other women may be able to have the procedure if there is not reason to have the cervix removed. In some cases the cervix is actually better left in place, such as some cases of severe endometriosis. It is a simpler procedure and requires less time to perform. It may give some added support of the vagina, decreasing the risk for the development of protrusion of the vaginal contents through the vaginal opening (vaginal prolapse).

Radical Hysterectomy -
This procedure involves more extensive surgery than a total abdominal hysterectomy because it also includes removing tissues surrounding the uterus and removal of the upper vagina. Radical hysterectomy is most commonly performed for early cervix cancer. There are more complications with radical hysterectomy compared to abdominal hysterectomy. These include injury to the bowels and urinary system.
출저: www.medicinenet.com/Hysterectomy/page2.htm

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